Design and Development Control Guidelines
5 HIGHWAYS CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT CONTROL
5.1.1 Detailed guidelines on highway design for residential, industrial, retail, commercial and other developments are available as a separate document entitled "Supplementary Development Control Guidelines (1) - Development Affecting Highways", published in January 1992.
5.1.2 The purpose of these guidelines is to set out a broad range of issues that will need to be taken into account by the local planning authority when determining applications for planning permission which affect the highway. It is not an authoritative interpretation of the law or regulations and, in cases of doubt or difficulty, it is advisable to seek the views of the Council's Transport Planning Division in the early stages of design.
5.2 Road hierarchy
5.2.1 The creation of a road hierarchy is necessary to establish layout principles which influence speed and safety conditions compatible with the accessibility and use of the road. UDP Policy G18 sets out a hierarchy based on: Strategic Roads; London Distributor Roads; Borough Distributor Roads; and Local Access Roads. To encourage the correct use, limitations are imposed upon the type of access allowed from each road. For these purposes, the local roads category is subdivided into major access roads, minor access roads, access ways, mews courts, housing clusters, private drives, cycleways and industrial roads. The various road types are explained below.
5.2.2 London Distributor Roads (Type 1) are the most important traffic roads except for the Strategic Roads (the A2 and A20 in Bexley). The purpose of London Distributor Roads is to provide a link between Strategic Roads. Where access to London Distributor Roads is required, an assessment of the impact of generated traffic from a development on that London Distributor Road should be carried out. This will assist in determining the viability of the road network to cater for the additional traffic as well as the type of junction necessary between the London Distributor Road and the development access.
5.2.3 Borough Distributor Roads (Type 2) are mostly routes which distribute traffic within residential and industrial areas. They form links between London Distributor Roads and other residential roads.
5.2.4 Major access roads (Type 3) are defined as loop or link roads or cul-de-sac, which serve as an access for up to 300 dwellings. Where a development is likely to serve more than 300 dwellings, it is more appropriate to be served from a Type 2 or Type 1 road.
5.2.5 Minor access roads (Type 4) are loop roads or cul-de-sac, which serve as an access for up to 100 dwellings.
5.2.6 In a few particular circumstances, consideration will be given to access ways (Type 5) of a shared surface type, where equal provision is made for pedestrians and vehicles. These are link roads to lower road types or cul-de-sac serving up to 30 dwellings. In order to emphasise the change between a normal highway with footways and a shared surface, it is recommended that a ramped entry to these roads is constructed.
5.2.7 Shared surfaces are generally not suitable in areas where dwellings have a number of elderly people or those with poor sight or hearing. In order to relieve the anxiety of such road users, in such situations a footway of width 1.8m is recommended on at least one side of the road.
5.2.8 Mews courts (Type 6) are cul-de-sac within medium and high density urban development which serve up to 20 dwellings. They are normally shared surface type developments and traffic speeds should be kept very low. Access into mews courts should be via a ramped entry.
5.2.9 Housing clusters (Type 7) are cul-de-sac within medium and high density urban development, often terraced accommodation surrounding a parking area. These should serve up to 20 dwellings from an access via a ramped entry.
5.2.10 Private drives (Type 8) are private accesses serving up to 3 dwellings from an access via ramped entry.
5.2.11 Cycleways (Type 9) are routes for use by pedal cyclists. They may be totally dedicated for use by cyclists or they may be shared with pedestrian routes. Further information can be found in 'Road and Traffic in Urban Areas' and 'Design Bulletin 32' (second edition).
5.2.12 Industrial roads (Type 10) are access roads for industrial developments. These are dealt with in more detail in Section 5.6.
5.2.13 Details of the road geometry and junction design requirements applying to each road type are contained in "Development Affecting Highways".
5.3 Access to borough roads
Policy G18 of the UDP identifies the classes of road in the borough's hierarchy of roads to which this guidance refers. The provision of vehicular access should be in accordance with the following standards.
5.3.1 London Distributor Roads:
There will be a general presumption against vehicular access to the London Distributor Roads listed in Appendix A to this guideline. Limited access to other London Distributor Roads may be approved if:
- there is no alternative access available;
- a turning area of approved standard can be provided within the property; and
- all of the requirements for the provision of vehicular access on other roads are met.
5.3.2 All other roads:
The following requirements for the provision of vehicular access apply:
- its position in relation to bends, junctions, sightlines and other features on the road should not create a hazard likely to lead to an accident;
- a minimum hardstanding of dimensions 4.8m long and 2.4m wide should be available within the curtilage of the property in such a way that no part of the parked vehicle need overhang the highway in contravention of the Highways Act; and
- sightlines should be provided for pedestrians and drivers to see each other and to ensure that a vehicle is not driven blindly onto the footway. Such sightlines should be a minimum of 2.4m x 2.4m between the vehicle hardstanding and the back of the footway. Within this sightline envelope no structure or landscaping should exceed 0.6m in height except individual items less than 0.45m wide, such as lamp columns.
5.4 Provision for pedestrians
5.4.1 Footways (i.e. footpaths next to roads) will provide for the greater part of pedestrian movement. Footpath links should be provided where the circuitous roads required for the control of speed would otherwise inconvenience shoppers, children going to school, postmen, newspaper deliveries etc. Such links should be short and overlooked by windows nearby. Longer footpaths raise security problems and should be avoided unless direct, likely to be busy and overlooked. There should be no places of concealment and any planting should be chosen to preserve good forward visibility. Overhead lighting should provide security at night.
5.4.2 Footpaths will normally be adoptable only when they link highways, or where they link a highway to a major public amenity. Footways will usually be adopted if the carriageway is adopted.
5.5.1 In accordance with Policy T17, applicants should make provision within their development site for car parking up to the maximum levels prescribed in Annex 1 of Chapter 8. This guidance applies even where the floor space of buildings is not being altered and the application is for a change of use.
5.5.2 Parking spaces should not normally be part of the adoptable highway and should be located such that routes between the spaces and dwelling entrances are shorter and more convenient to use than would be the case if parking were on carriageways.
5.6 Industrial developments
5.6.1 The design and layout of industrial developments require careful consideration. Such developments need to cater for large vehicles for manoeuvring, delivery and parking. Guidance on providing suitable layout and design for industrial developments is contained within "Roads and Traffic in Urban Areas" (RTUA) available from The Stationery Office.
5.6.2 The manoeuvrability of heavy goods vehicles depends upon their size, whether they are rigid bodied or articulated, the number of axles and the skills and judgement of the driver. Although some manufacturing processes employ specialist vehicles with manoeuvring characteristics that can be translated directly into a design, the majority of industrial estates will involve a range of vehicle types and sizes. Most designs will operate satisfactorily if they can cope with the requirements of a 15.5m long, articulated vehicle and a 10m long, rigid vehicle. In general, articulated vehicles are more manoeuvrable than the equivalent sized rigid vehicle because the radius of the inner swept path described by the rear axle(s) is much less. However, in designing turning areas for industrial vehicles, the types of vehicles expected to predominate should be the major consideration. Typical turning areas for heavy goods vehicles are shown in RTUA.
5.6.3 In many industrial areas, vehicles or trailers are required to be left overnight. They cannot be left on adopted highways, as they are subject to a night-time lorry parking ban. Apart from the areas reserved for deliveries, it may be possible to utilise the car parking spaces as overnight parking for goods vehicles. The layouts of these should still permit some car parking to take place and should be marked in a different colour to the car parking layout.
Provision of vehicular access to London Distributor Roads
There will be a general presumption against vehicular access to the London Distributor Roads listed below:
A2016 Eastern Way, Thamesmead
A2016 Bronze Age Way, Belvedere
A2016 Bronze Age Way, Erith
A206 Queens Road, Erith
A206 South Road, Erith
A206 Northend Road, Erith
A206 Thames Road, Crayford
A207 Albion Road, Bexleyheath
A207 London Road, Crayford
A207 Crayford Road (part between London Road and Roman Way)
A207 Roman Way, Crayford
A2000 Perry Street, Crayford
A2000 Crayford High Street, Crayford
A221 Kestlake Road, Bexley
A223 Bourne Road, Crayford
A223 Bourne Road, Bexley
A223 Bexley High Street, Bexley
A223 Southwold Road, Bexley
A223 North Cray Road, Bexley
A223 North Cray Road, Sidcup
A2018 Vicarage Road, Bexley
A2018 Dartford Road, Bexley